Ahvenalised (Perciformes)

Kõige suurem kalade ja selgroogsete selts, mis kuulub ahvenalaadsete (Percomorpha) ülemseltsi, kiiruimsete klassi. Ahvenaliste hulka kuulub 40% kõigist kaladest, kokku üle  10 000 liigi.

Seljauimi on enamasti 2 ja eesmine koosneb ogakiirtest; kõhuuimed, kui nad on olemas, asetsevad tavaliselt rinnauimede all või nendest eespool - kõril ning ei sisalda enamasti üle kuue kiire. Rinnauimede alused asetsevad kala pikitelje suhtes kaldu või perpendikulaarselt. Ogajad on ka pärakuuime esimesed uimekiired. Rasvauim puudub. Saagsoomused. Ujupõis ei ole ühendatud sooltoruga või puudub hoopis. Paarkümmend alamseltsi, suurimaks neist pärisahvenalised (Percoidei) ja umbes 160 sugukonda. 

Taksonoomilistes jaotumistes on erinevusi ning need on jätkuvas täienemises ja muutumises. Allpool toodud alamsugukondadeks jaotumine on võetud üle Wikipedia inglisekeelsest artiklist Perciformes, kus see reprodutseerib ahvenaliste seltsi kujul nagu see on teoses Nelson J.S. Fishes of the World. 4th edition. — John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken, New Jersey, 2006. Alamseltside ja sugukondade eestikeelsed nimed on võetud teosest Loomade elu.


Ahvenaliste sugukonnad: 

 
Alamselts Percoidei, pärisahvenlased

Ülemsugukond Percoidea
Acropomatidae (temperate ocean-basses), helendusahvenlased
Ambassidae (Asiatic glassfishes)
Apogonidae (cardinalfishes), kardinalahvenlased
Arripidae (Australasian salmon), arriplased
Badidae (chameleonfishes)
Banjosidae (banjofish)
Bathyclupeidae (deepsea herrings), ebaheeringlased
Bramidae (pomfrets), merilatiklased
Caesionidae (fusiliers)
Callanthiidae (splendid perches)
Carangidae (jacks, pompanos), hobumakrellased
Caristiidae (manefishes), lakkkalalased
Centracanthidae (picarels)
Centrarchidae (freshwater sunfishes), päikesekalalased
Centrogenyidae (false scorpionfishes)
Centropomidae (snooks), robalolased
Chaetodontidae (butterflyfishes), harjashammaslased
Coryphaenidae (dolphinfishes), kuldmakrelllased
Datnioididae (tigerfishes)
Dichistiidae (galjoen fishes)
Dinolestidae (long-finned pike)
Dinopercidae (cavebass)
Drepaneidae (sicklefishes)
Echeneidae (remoras), imikalalased
Emmelichthyidae (rovers), punasilmlased
Enoplosidae (old wife)
Epigonidae (deepwater cardinalfishes)
Gerreidae (mojarras)
Glaucosomatidae (pearl perches), pärlahvenlased
Grammatidae (basslets)
Haemulidae (grunts)
Howellidae (oceanic basslets)
Inermiidae (bonnetmouths)
Kuhliidae (flagtails), läikahvenlased
Kyphosidae (sea chubs)
Lactariidae (false trevallies), piimaahvenlased
Lateolabracidae (Asian seaperches)
Latidae (lates, barramundi, Nile perch)
Leiognathidae (ponyfishes), hõbekõhtlased
Leptobramidae (beachsalmon)
Lethrinidae (emperor breams), seaninalased
Lobotidae (tripletails), kolmsabalased
Lutjanidae (snappers), riffahvenlased
Malacanthidae (tilefishes)
Menidae (moonfish), menelased
Monodactylidae (moonyfishes), lehtuimlased
Moronidae (temperate basses), huntahvenlased
Mullidae (goatfishes), meripoisurlased
Nandidae (Asian leaffishes), nanduslased
Nematistiidae (roosterfish)
Nemipteridae (threadfin breams), niituimlased
Opistognathidae (jawfishes), suursuulased
Oplegnathidae (knifejaws), nokkhammaskalalased
Ostracoberycidae (shellskin alfonsinos)
Pempheridae (sweepers)suursilmkalalased
Pentacerotidae (armorheads), kultkalalased
Percichthyidae (temperate perches)
Percidae (perches and darters), ahvenlased
Plesiopidae (roundheads)
Polycentridae (leaffishes)
Polynemidae (threadfins)
Polyprionidae (wreckfishes), vrakkahvenlased
Pomacanthidae (marine angelfishes)
Pomatomidae (bluefish), sinikalalased
Priacanthidae (bigeyes), suursilmahvenlased
Pseudochromidae (dottybacks)
Rachycentridae (cobia), seersantkalalased
Sciaenidae (drums), kotkaskalalased
Scombropidae (gnomefish), ebasinikalalased
Serranidae (sea basses, groupers and relatives), kiviahvenlased
Sillaginidae (whitings and relatives), liivaahvenlased
Sparidae (sea breams and porgies), merikogerlased
Symphysanodontidae (slopefishes)
Terapontidae (grunters), tiigerahvenlased
Toxotidae (archerfishes), küttkalalased

Ülemsugukond Cirrhitoidea
Aplodactylidae (marblefishes)
Cheilodactylidae (morwongs), küüsuimlased
Chironemidae (kelpfishes)
Cirrhitidae (hawkfishes), käharuimlased
Latridae (trumpeters)

Ülemsugukond Cepoloidea
Cepolidae (bandfishes), paelkalalased

Alamselts Elassomatoidei

Elassomatidae (pygmy sunfishes)

Alamselts Labroidei, huulkalalised

Cichlidae (cichlids), kirevahvenlased
Embiotocidae (surfperches), murdluskalalased
Labridae (wrasses), huulkalalased
Odacidae (cales and weed whitings), lõunahuulkalalased
Pomacentridae (damselfishes), riffkalalased
Scaridae (parrotfishes), papagoikalalased

Alamselts Zoarcoidei, emakalalised

Anarhichadidae (wolffishes), merihuntlased
Bathymasteridae (ronquils), süvalohelased
Cryptacanthodidae (wrymouths), kõversuulased
Pholidae (gunnels), võikalalased
Ptilichthyidae (quillfish), sulgkalalased
Scytalinidae (graveldiver)
Stichaeidae (pricklebacks), ridakalalased
Zaproridae (prowfish)
Zoarcidae (eelpouts), emakalalased

Alamselts Notothenioidei, notateenialised (vahel paigutatud pärisahvenlaste alamseltsi)

Artedidraconidae (barbeled plunderfishes)
Bathydraconidae (Antarctic dragonfishes), süvalameninalased
Bovichthyidae (thornfishes)
Channichthyidae (crocodile icefishes), jääkalalased
Eleginopsidae (Patagonian blennies)
Harpagiferidae (spiny plunderfishes), ogapealased
Nototheniidae (cod icefishes), nototeenialased
Pseudaphritidae (catadromous icefishes)

Alamselts Trachinoidei, merilohelised

Ammodytidae (sand lances), tobiaslased
Champsodontidae (crocodile toothfishes)
Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrent fish)
Chiasmodontidae (snaketooth fishes), õgijalased
Creediidae (sandburrowers)
Leptoscopidae (southern sandfishes)
Percophidae (duckbills)
Pholidichthyidae (convict blennies)
Pinguipedidae (sandperches)
Trachinidae (weeverfishes), merilohelased
Trichodontidae (sandfishes), juushammaslased
Trichonotidae (sanddivers)
Uranoscopidae (stargazers), tähetarkkalalased

Alamselts Blennioidei, limakalalised

Blenniidae (combtooth blennies), limakalalased
Chaenopsidae (pike-, tube- and flagblennies)
Clinidae (clinids), klinuskalalased
Dactyloscopidae (sand stargazers)
Labrisomidae (labrisomids)
Tripterygiidae (threefin blennies), kolmuimlased

Alamselts Icosteoidei, räbalkalalised

Icosteidae (ragfish), räbalkalalased

Alamselts Callionymoidei, lüürakalalised

Callionymidae (dragonets), lüürakalalased
Draconettidae (slope dragonets), dragonetlased

Alamselts Gobioidei, mudilalised

Eleotridae (sleepers), peitmudillased
Gobiidae (gobies), mudillased
Kraemeriidae (sand darters)
Microdesmidae (wormfishes), mikrodesmlased
Odontobutidae (freshwater sleepers)
Ptereleotridae (dartfishes)
Rhyacichthyidae (loach gobies), imirindlased
Schindleriidae (infantfishes), shindeerlased
Xenisthmidae (collared wrigglers)

Alamselts Kurtoidei, kurtuselised

Kurtidae (nurseryfishes), kurtuslased

Alamselts Acanthuroidei, kirurgkalalised

Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes), kirurgkalalased
Ephippidae (spadefishes), merilabidaslased
Luvaridae (louvar), luvarlased
Scatophagidae (scats), roojakalalased
Siganidae (rabbitfishes), küülikkalalased
Zanclidae (Moorish idol), viirkalalased

Alamselts Scombrolabracoidei

Scombrolabracidae (longfin escolar)

Alamselts Scombroidei, makrellilised

Sphyraenidae (barracudas), noolhauglased
Gempylidae (snake mackerels)
Trichiuridae (cutlassfishes), lintsabalased
Scombridae (mackerels and tunas), makrelllased
Xiphiidae (swordfish), mõõkkalalased
Istiophoridae (marlins), purikalalased

Alamselts Stromateoidei, stromateuselised

Amarsipidae (bagless glassfish), amarsiplased
Ariommatidae (ariommatids)
Centrolophidae (medusafishes), tsentrolooflased
Nomeidae (driftfishes), nomeuslased
Tetragonuridae (squaretails), aletlased
Stromateidae (butterfishes), stromateuslased

Alamselts Anabantoidei, ronikalalised

Anabantidae (climbing gouramies), ronikalalased
Osphronemidae (gouramies)
Helostomatidae (kissing gourami)

Alamselts Channoidei

Channidae (snakeheads), madupealased

Alamselts Caproidei

Caproidae (boarfishes)

Ahvenaliste seltsi sugukonnad (156) tähestikulises järjestuses (FishBase'st):

Acanthuridae Acropomatidae Amarsipidae Ambassidae Ammodytidae Anabantidae Anarhichadidae Aplodactylidae Apogonidae Ariommatidae Arripidae Artedidraconidae Badidae Banjosidae Bathyclupeidae Bathydraconidae Bathymasteridae Blenniidae Bovichtidae Bramidae Caesionidae Callanthiidae Callionymidae Caproidae Carangidae Caristiidae Centracanthidae Centrarchidae Centrogenyidae Centrolophidae Centropomidae Cepolidae Chaenopsidae Chaetodontidae Champsodontidae Channichthyidae Channidae Cheilodactylidae Cheimarrichthyidae Chiasmodontidae Chironemidae Cichlidae Cirrhitidae Clinidae Coryphaenidae Creediidae Cryptacanthodidae Dactyloscopidae Datnioididae Dichistiidae Dinolestidae Dinopercidae Draconettidae Drepaneidae Echeneidae Elassomatidae Eleginopsidae Eleotridae Embiotocidae Emmelichthyidae Enoplosidae Ephippidae Epigonidae Gempylidae Gerreidae Glaucosomatidae Gobiidae Grammatidae Haemulidae Hapalogenyidae Harpagiferidae Helostomatidae Howellidae Icosteidae Inermiidae Istiophoridae Kraemeriidae Kuhliidae Kurtidae Kyphosidae Labridae Labrisomidae Lactariidae Lateolabracidae Latidae Latridae Leiognathidae Leptobramidae Leptoscopidae Lethrinidae Lobotidae Lutjanidae Luvaridae Malacanthidae Menidae Microdesmidae Monodactylidae Moronidae Mullidae Nandidae Nematistiidae Nemipteridae Nomeidae Nototh

Vaata lisaks:

Makrelllased (Scombridae)
Päikesekalalased (Centrarchidae)
Merihuntlased (Anarhichadidae)
Merikogerlased (Sparidae)
Sinikala ehk lufaar (Pomatomus saltatrix)
Vrakkahvenlased (Polyprionidae)
Päikesekalalased (Centrarchidae)
bass
Huntahvenlased (Moronidae)
Emakalalased (Zoarcidae)
kotkaskalalased ehk küürlased (Sciaenidae)
kiviahvenlased (Serranidae)
Kirevahvenlased (Cichlidae)
ahvenlased (Percidae)
Kalale.ee KIK